Johann Joachim Quantz (1697-1773) was not only a composer and theorist, he also played oboe, flute, violin and keyboard. His works, however, were mostly flute concertos, flute sonatas and trio sonatas. After 1741, Quantz wrote almost exclusively for Frederick the Great, also teaching him flute. As part of Frederick the Great’s royal band of musicians, one of his most well-known contemporaries was C.P.E. Bach, also a member of the court musicians. In 1752, Quantz published a treatise on flute methods, which became well known for its description of performance practice of the time. Also a flute maker, he added a second key and divided the head joint into two sections to create a tuning slide.
This concerto, written while Quantz was part of King Frederick’s court, has three movements: Allegro ma non tanto, Andante, and Allegro assai. This follows the fast-slow-fast form set by Vivaldi. Meant for two flutes and orchestra, the orchestra consisted of two each oboes, cornets, transverse flutes, violins, and one viola, fagotto and keyboard instrument. Although Vivaldi influenced Quantz greatly, Quantz gave Giuseppe Torelli credit as inventor of the concerto. Quantz was a good example of the bridge between late Baroque and early Classic eras, utilizing both the French and Italian elements. He combined the Baroque counterpoint complexity with the galant style. This can be seen in the first measures of the first movement with the frequent use of trills-there are four in just the first four measures, with many others following.
Here is the link for the entire pdf:
I am comparing Quantz’s Flute concerto to J. G. Graun’s Violin Concerto in C minor. Both reflect the changes from Baroque to early classical, with a smoother blending of orchestra with the solo instruments. They also are both associated with the North German concertos of the era. They each contain three movements, with fast-slow-fast forms. The instrumentation in Graun's piece is similar to Quantz’s Flute concerto.
Here are the links for both the youtube and pdf files:
The line between late Baroque and early Classic is difficult to find. Many of the works still sound very Baroque, but looking at the years and reflecting how music was passed into other countries, it is easier to understand the slow changes. It was much more difficult to narrow down a work, with so many more being available!
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